The Industrial Revolution was a period of time during the late 1800's and early 1900's when machines started to replace some of the tasks previously done by hand. This industrial revolution changed the world.
The industrial revolution started in England and was prompted by the invention of the steam engine. From there, technology boomed and metal tools, factories, and engineering were born. The industrial caught on rapidly in other locations as a result of industrial espionage and industrialist who were happy to learn and teach.
The industrial revolution began in England for a number of reasons. The most important was of course the invention of the steam engine, but it was more than that. Another reason for the England to host the industrial revolution was economics. Great Britain had a large domestic market that was not separated into local areas like that of other European countries. It also had a number of resources from their many colonies and the new world.
However, many experts wondered why the industrial revolution did not start in China. One conclusion is that China was doing so well with the methods that they had in practice at the time, that to come up with the capital used to start industrial projects was just not justified. It is also said that the lack of resources, specifically coal, was also a factor in China's lack of industry.
The industrial revolution brought about a number of positive changes but it had its downsides. One of these downsides was the unethical use of child labor. Child labor itself was not the unethical part, but the abusive nature of the factory owners prompted politicians to pass the first child labor laws.
Other negative impacts including poor housing conditions for laborers, strikes and the luddites. The luddites were a band of individuals who blamed industry for taking their jobs. This included textile producers who could not compete with the speed and quantity put out by machines. Together they sought to destroy industry by destroying factories and machines.